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Description found in Archives

Treaties and surrenders [textual record, object]. 

Sub-series consists of



Place of creation

No place, unknown, or undetermined

1.90 m of textual records
3 medals bronze, silver.

Scope and content

Sub-series consists of records of treaties and surrenders. Vol. 1818 contains a parchment copy of IT (Indian Treaty) 296 (known also as Western Treaty 6 and, in the Department of Indian Affairs numbering system, as Treaty 157A), signed near Fort Carlton by the Cree Indians, August 23-28, 1876. Volumes 1840-1853 and 11964 contain the main body of federal government Treaties, land surrenders and adhesions, amendments and other associated documents pertaining to Indian land which are in National Archives custody. By the late 19th century, the Department of Indian Affairs had amassed at its headquarters office an extensive collection of original Indian Treaty documents. Drawn from various sources over many years, these records were maintained together as a collection by the Department. The first instalment of the documents now found in this sub-series in volumes 1840-1853 and 11964 was transferred to National Archives custody in 1907. Additional records were transferred subsequently over a number of years. Sub-series also consists of a Treaty 1 & 2/Queen Victoria (1871) medal; Treaty 1 & 2/Queen Victoria (1872) replacement edition medal; and a Treaty 3,4,5,6,7,& 8/Queen Victoria (1873-1877, 1899) medal. The federal government published transcribed texts of the majority, but not all, of these documents in a three-volume set titled "Indian Treaties and Surrenders". The first two volumes appeared in 1891; the third was published in 1912. Prior to this publication, the Department of Indian Affairs had devised a numbering system for the individual documents. Documents numbered 1-138 according to this system were published as volume I of "Indian Treaties and Surrenders". Documents 140-280 1/2 were published as volume II, and documents 281-483 were published as volume III. The texts of documents numbered higher than 483 were not published. The existence of this numbering system, designed by the creating/maintaining agency while the records were still in its custody, and the wide availability to the public through publication of the texts of the documents described according to this numbering system, can create an element of confusion for users of the original and microfilm copies of the records now in National Archives custody. Although the numbers assigned to the documents by the Department of Indian Affairs are retained in National Archives finding aids as a secondary means of identification, the primary means by which individual documents are controlled and described at the National Archives is by their volume number (volumes 1840-1853 and 11964) and, more importantly, by their IT (Indian Treaty) number. The IT number system was devised by the National Archives in the early 1990s at the time at which the records were re-arranged for microfilming. There is not a 1:1 relationship between what the National Archives finding aids refer to as the "Indian Affairs number" (i.e., the number which describes the document in the publication "Indian Treaties and Surrenders") assigned to a document and the "IT number" assigned by the National Archives. This is explained by the fact that the "document" identified by a single number by the Department of Indian Affairs was, in some cases, made up of a number of individual documents. Where one number only was assigned by the Department of Indian Affairs, multiple IT numbers have been assigned by the National Archives for the various component parts of the "document". For example, the treaty of 17 May 1790 between the Crown and the Chippawa, Ottawa, Pottowatomy and Huron Nations at Detriot is identified in the Department of Indian Affairs numbering system as treaty number 2. However, the record is actually comprised of three documents - a manuscript original, a manuscript contemporary copy, and a manuscript true copy prepared at a later date. In the National Archives numbering system, these three records are identified as IT 2, IT 3, and IT 4. Description of the records is further complicated by the existence of a third nomenclature for certain of the treaty records. For example, those records commonly referred to as the "Western Treaties" numbered 1-11, have been assigned numbers in both the Department of Indian Affairs and the National Archives numbering systems. A user wishing to consult "Western Treaty 7" (that made with the Blackfoot, Blood, Peigan, Sarcee, and Stoney Nations, 22 September 1877), would find this record identified as Treaty # 163 in the Department of Indian Affairs numbering system (and, hence, identified as such in the publication "Indian Treaties and Surrenders"). However, the same record is actually comprised of two component records, a manuscript original and a 4 December 1877 adhesion to Treaty, signed by Chief Three Bulls, and is described according to the National Archives numbering system as, respectively IT 310 and IT 311.

90: Open
Textual records
Microfilm reel T-9938
90: Open
Textual records
Microfilm reel T-17279
90: Open
Textual records
Microfilm reel T-9941
90: Open
Textual records
Microfilm reel T-9939
90: Open
Textual records
Microfilm reel T-9940
90: Open
Textual records
96: Restrictions vary
32: Restricted by law
Textual records
96: Restrictions vary
from 1840/IT001 to 1840/IT027
from 1841/IT029 to 1841/IT041
from 1842/IT042 to 1842/IT054
from 1842/IT056 to 1842/IT057
from 1842/IT059 to 1842/IT080
from 1843/IT081 to 1843/IT098
from 1843/IT100 to 1843/IT115
from 1844/IT116 to 1844/IT151
from 1845/IT152 to 1845/IT177
from 1845/IT179 to 1845/IT236
from 1846/IT237 to 1846/IT278
from 1847/IT279 to 1847/IT306
from 1848/IT307 to 1848/IT311
from 1848/IT313 to 1848/IT321
from 1848/IT323 to 1848/IT339
from 1849/IT340 to 1849/IT370
from 1850/IT371 to 1850/IT379
from 1850/IT381 to 1850/IT400
from 1850/IT508 to 1850/IT513
from 1851/IT401 to 1851/IT409
from 1851/IT411 to 1851/IT440
from 1851/IT514 to 1851/IT518
from 1852/IT441 to 1852/IT459
from 1852/IT461 to 1852/IT482
from 1852/IT519 to 1852/IT523
from 1853/IT483 to 1853/IT506
90: Open
Archival reference no.
Former archival reference no.

Terms of use

Copyright belongs to the Crown. In order to protect the fragile originals, the microfilm copies of these records must be consulted rather than the originals.
Object: No retrictions on use or reproduction. Copyright expired. Credit: National Archives of Canada. Must be consulted under close supervision for conservation purposes.

Finding aid 10-1 is a computer generated volume list relating to volumes 1818, 1840-1853. 10-1 (Electronic)

Finding aid 10-44 describes each document in volumes 1840-1853 and 11964 in IT number order. It also provides a concordance list that correlates National Archives volume number, Indian Affairs number, and IT number. In addition, the finding aid notes those treaties commonly referred to by another nomenclature (e.g., Western Treaty 7). 10-44 (Paper)

Objects: Item-level descriptions available in ICON database. (Electronic)

Additional information

Source of title
Title is based on the contents of the sub-series.

No further accruals are expected.

Availability of other formats note
Reference copies of volumes 1840-1853 are available on microfilm reels T-9938 to T-9941. Volumes 1818 and 11964 were not filmed.
The following items have been digitized: C-043459/C-043458 (ICON); C-043219/C-043221 (ICON); C-070759/C-070758 (ICON).

Exhibitions note
Exhibition Title: Treasured Memories 5. Curator: Michal Anne Crawley, National Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario; 2001.01.22-2001.11.12.
Exhibition Title: Treasured Memories 4. Curator: Michel Anne Crawley, National Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario; 2000.03.22-2000.12. (RG 10 vol. 1843, Treaty; February 2, 1834) Exhibition Title: Treasured Memories: 125th Anniversary of the National Archives. Curator: Martin Tétreault, National Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario; 1997.05.14-1998.01. (MG10 v.1843, Indian Treaty 110)


Related control no.

1. 1991-92/019 GAD
2. 119-000018-0
3. RG10-D-10-a