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AgricultureCanada and WarCommunicationGadgets and Things for Everday LifeIndustryMedicineScience and TechnologyTransportation

Themes in Innovation

This section exhibits a variety of Canadian patents between the years 1869 and 1894. The patents are organized into the following themes: Agriculture, Canada and War, Communication, Gadgets and Things for Everyday Life, Industry, Medicine, Science and Technology, and Transportation.

Included with the patents are images of the inventions and articles providing historical and social background. All of these in combination should shed more light on patenting as a process of knowledge provision, innovation and documentary heritage.

The majority of patents filed between 1869 and 1894 were written in English and submitted by men. However, there were some patents filed in French and some by women, for example those of George Boucher and Eliza Scott.

You will be able to view the selected patents from beginning to end as well as images of the inventions based on the drawings provided as part of the patents. Some of these images are photographs of actual models on display at the Canada Science and Technology Museum (

To explore for more Canadian patents, please see this site's Patents Databases section.